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The Judicial Branch consists of the Supreme Judicial Court, the trial courts and the Administrative Office of the Courts. Judges are nominated by the Governor,confirmed by the legislature and serve seven year terms. (Probate judges are an exception. They are elected to four year terms by the voters of each county).

The Supreme Judicial Court has general administrative and supervisory authority over the Judicial Branch. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court designates a Superior Court Chief Justice and District Court Chief Judge to oversee the day-to-day administrative operations of those trial courts, and also appoints the State Court Administrator, who runs the Administrative Office of the Courts. In addition, the Chief Justice takes an active hand in designing and administering procedures aimed at the speedy and just resolution of cases in the trial courts.

Court Structure